Transfer of learning after updating training mediated by the striatum

Subjects learned foreign vocabulary across three consecutive tests with correct-answer feedback.Functional brain-activity responses were analyzed in relation to retrieval and feedback events, respectively.A similar activity pattern across consecutive tests was seen in bilateral frontal regions and in a region within the brainstem.Higher activity in these regions was only found at the first retrieval success trial, independently of when it occurred (T1 or T2), and the response showed a marked decrease as a function of subsequent successful retrieval trials.To minimize expectancy feedback, test items with feedback [correct target word] were uniquely interspersed with test items without feedback [¤¤¤].We expected higher activity in the hippocampus Mean proportion of response correctness for items judged as “know and correct” at T1 was 0.34 (SE = 0.05), at T2, M = 0.61 (SE = 0.06), and at T3, M = 0.69 (SE = 0.06) indicating that feedback significantly enhanced learning across the three consecutive tests.A second goal was to examine how the retrieval activity was modulated by feedback.

b Change in the BOLD signal during feedback related to retrieval success. The activations were identified at a more lenient statistical threshold (p Compared with the extensive behavioral evidence for test-enhanced learning as superior to a study only condition, and feedback as critical for the effect, little is known about the neuro-cognitive processes underlying these behavioral outcomes.However, considerably less is known about the underlying neuro-cognitive processes that are involved in the initial testing phase, and thus underlies the actual testing effect.Here, we investigated functional brain activity related to test-enhanced learning with feedback.It is suggested that the beneficial effects of test-enhanced learning is regulated by feedback-induced updating of memory representations, mediated via the striatum, that might underlie the stabilization of memory commonly seen in behavioral studies of the testing effect.A substantial number of behavioral studies have demonstrated that repeated testing enhances learning and retention of to-be-learned material more than restudy, a phenomenon known as the testing effect.

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