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S.- Soviet relationship, Soviet authorities clamped down harshly on exit visas and emigration dried up for nearly a decade. Congress passed the Lautenberg Amendment classifying Soviet Jews and certain other religious communities as persecuted groups, automatically qualifying them for refugee status.
It began slowly returning in 1987 during Gorbachev’s “perestroika” and gradually increased, especially after Gorbachev strengthened contacts with President Reagan and European leaders, who pushed him to liberalize Soviet emigration policy. Over the next decade, a huge wave of new Russian-Jewish immigrants headed to American shores.
Nonetheless, certain key concepts are universally practiced by all streams of Judaism.
Jewish funerals can take place in a variety of locations.
In both cities, more than 40% of households in which at least one member is employed report an annual income of ,000 or more.
Despite the challenges facing many elderly Russian-speaking Jews, social service professionals in the community see little evidence of hunger or homelessness among them.
Traditionally, Jewish mourners have specific responsibilities and prohibitions.
Tradition teaches that the following people are "officially" designated as mourners: Parent, child, spouse, or sibling. Placing earth in the grave of a loved one (see below) is a powerful act of service and love.
Traditionally, burial takes place as soon as possible-within 24 hours.
The reason for this is so that the process of decomposition can take place in a natural fashion. In most cases, the closed casket is present at the service. As such, rules about embalming, grave liners, and other regulations that are in place for public health must be followed.
While there are rituals that must be performed at a Jewish funeral, customs and traditions vary greatly depending on the community and the person who officiates at the service.
Exit visa requests were denied and many Jews who had already applied for them lost their jobs, creating the category of “refuseniks,” people refused the right to leave the country.
Nevertheless, the outflow did not stop entirely, as some did get permission to leave, especially after the 1975 Helsinki Accord signed by 35 European nations including the U. About a third of the Russian-speaking Jewish population now living in After the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan at the end of 1979, the subsequent U. boycott of the Moscow Olympics of 1980, and the return to an overtly hostile U.